Bird Families

Ecology of the Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella in the Lower Ob region

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  • Superclass Tetrapoda Class Birds Aves
  • Order Passeriformes - Passeriformes
  • Suborder Singing Passerines - Oscines group Passerida
  • Superfamily Passeriformes - Passeroidea
  • Family Accentorids - Prunellidae
  • Genus Acorteurs - Prunella

Siberian Accentor - Prunella montanella Pallas. A bird the size of a sparrow. The top is brown with brown spots. The top of the head is dark, a wide blackish stripe runs through the eye, a wide white stripe extends above the eye to the neck. The throat is light. The bottom is yellowish-buffy. It prefers to swim in dense bushes near the ground. Careful. The song is a chirping, ringing trill, the call call is a monotonous chirping.

East Siberian species found in the north of Central Siberia (in the forest-tundra and shrub tundra, less often in the extreme northern taiga) and in the south, in the subalpine belt of the Sayan and Kuznetsk Alatau. Prefers dense and damp thickets, at least with individual trees. Nest is built low (at a height of about 1 m) on the trunk of a willow, fir-tree or fir or at the base of the trunk, on the roots or on the ground. Clutch - 5-6 bluish-green eggs. It apparently feeds on insects and plant seeds.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "Ecology of the Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella in the Lower Ob region"

Russian Ornithological Journal 2009, Volume 18, Express Issue 513: 1635-1644

Ecology of the Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella in the Lower Ob region

V. N. Ryzhanovsky

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, st. March 8, 202, Yekaterinburg. Russia. E-mail: [email protected]

Received September 28, 2009

The Siberian Accentor Prunella montanella is widespread in remote areas, is small in number, and therefore belongs to the species with insufficiently studied ecology. In the Lower Ob region, this Accentor is also scarce, its study leaves much to be desired, but certain information on its ecology is still available in published monographs and articles (Dobrinsky 1965, Danilov et al. 1984, Golovatin, Paskhalny 2005). These data, supplemented by the author's materials collected during work at field stations, when catching birds with nets and a large trap, as well as when keeping dunnocks in captivity, are presented in this work.

The Siberian Accentor nests in the northern taiga regions of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, enters the forest-tundra through the floodplain forests, penetrates to the south of the shrub tundra of Yamal to the 69th parallel, where it is found in the valleys of the Nurmayakha and Yuribey rivers (Ryabitsev et al. 1995, Golovatin et al. 2004). Found in the valley island forests of the Yadayakhodayakha, Khadytayakha, Shchuchya rivers (Dobrinsky 1965, Danilov et al. 1984). In the areas adjacent to the Polar Urals, it is found throughout the territory occupied by forests, in intermontane valleys without rising above the limit of distribution of tall shrubs (Golovatin, Paskhalny 2005).

The favorite habitats of the Siberian Accentor are mixed forests with dense undergrowth and undergrowth. She especially loves forests with spruce and fir (Ryabitsev 2001). In the north of the forest-tundra and in shrub tundra, it occurs on shallows overgrown with alder groves and in dense willow forests in the floodplain. For her, the presence of single spruces or juniper bushes in the undergrowth is desirable. M.G. Golovatin and S.P. Paskhalny (2005) recorded singing dunnocks also in tall herbaceous willows, alders, in larch woodlands, i.e., outside the usual taiga and forest-tundra biotope.

On average, in the Ob forest-tundra, the Siberian Accentor should be classified as a small species with a pronounced uneven distribution even over optimal biotopes. In the Khadytaya-khi basin, it forms distinct settlements of nesting in the neighborhood

2-6 pairs (Danilov et al. 1984). V.K. Ryabitsev (1993) for the station "Swallow Coast" in the forest belt of Khadytakhi gives a density of 14.321.7 pairs / km2, but somewhat downstream, in the vicinity of the Khadyt trading post, these birds did not nest every year (Danilov et al. 1984 ). During the period of our observations (1968-2004), Siberian Accentuates made no attempts to occupy the territory and nest at the Kharp station, despite the fact that some parts of the station were overgrown with larch trees with dense and high undergrowth. In the mixed forest of the Oktyabrsky stationary study area (22 ha), in the period from 1978 to 1983, Accentors nested in 1981 - 5 pairs (22.7 pairs / km2) and 1982 - 1 pair (4.5) were counted, and in 2001-2004 in the same place on an area of ​​38 hectares, only in 2004 1 pair was counted (2.6 pairs / km2). M.G. Golovatin and S.P. Paskhalny (2005) for the low mountains of the Polar Urals in the more southern part of our region give the following density values ​​for this species: tall shrubs - 0.8 ± 0.4, open woodlands of park type - 0.6 ± 0.6, mixed forests - 2.1 ± 0.9 pairs / km2; in the first case, the Siberian Accentor accounted for 36.6% of the total bird population at the site, and in the third, 45.5%. The species dominated in these biotopes at a local density in the mixed forest of 9.1 ± 4.6 pairs / km2. In the middle reaches of the Sobi River in the mixed forest of the river valley in 1977, on a site of 40 hectares, at least 3 pairs (7.5 pairs / km2) were counted, and 2 nests were found. Slightly downstream, according to the results of route counts by S.P. Paskhalny in 2002-2004 (Ryzhanovsky, Paskhalny 2007), Accentor nests nested at a density

1.3 pairs / km2 in 2003 and 2004, in 2002 they were not found on the route. In the Voikar River basin, the average density over 9 years of counts was 0.7 ± 0.2 pairs / km2 (Golovatin and Paskhalny 2005). Thus, within our area, P. montanella is distributed mosaically, in accordance with the mosaic of the distribution of coniferous vegetation, and has a tendency to form group settlements. The average nesting density of this species for the Lower Ob region is below 1 pair per 1 km2.

Siberian Accentors appeared in our area between May 22 (1977) and June 7 (1989), the average arrival date was June 3 (n = 11). During the spring, from 1 to 8 birds were caught, in 1978 alone 30 individuals were caught. The arrival in 1978 lasted 14 days, in 1979 - 15 days, in other years the Accentor was caught in nets and traps for a week or less. Males prevailed among the dunnocks caught in the spring (38 versus 27 $$). In 1978, the first male was caught on May 29, the first female on June 5, simultaneously with the appearance of the main part of the males in the nets. In 1981, on June 3, the first male and female of the season hit the net. In 1982, the first male was caught on June 2, the first female on June 3. Probably, there are no sex-related differences in the timing of arrival in the northern part of the range. Birds migrate in small flocks, to

in the summer are invisible. The maximum number of Siberian Accentors - several hundred individuals in small flocks - was found in the first ten days of June 1976 in the valley of the Sobi River. Here, these birds are quite common for nesting, but in this case, the movement of flocks was observed up the valley, in the direction of the exit into the tundra of the western slope of the Polar Urals. The spring was cold, with north-westerly winds, the snow melted slowly, especially in the upper part of the valley directed to the north-west, which apparently delayed the movement of birds into the European tundra, which was covered with snow to a much greater extent than the forest-tundra of the eastern slope.

The local population of the local area is formed gradually. In 1981, the first male sang on the site on May 30, the second on June 5, the third on June 8, and the fourth on June 15. The area of ​​the marked territory in 3 birds slightly exceeded 1 ha, in the 4th one it was less than 0.5 ha. The territories of the Accentor did not border on each other, but surrounded the first one. Several single encounters of singing males were noted in other parts of the survey site - either the same or occupying temporary territories.

Adult birds are characterized by a very high level of attachment to the previous nesting site. In 1977, 3 birds out of 10 were caught in the Sobi Valley, ringed in July-August 1976 at the age of over a year. In 1978, 1 accentor out of 37, ringed during the nesting time of 1977, was caught in the same place, and in 1979 at the Oktyabrsky station, 2 birds out of 33 ringed in 1978 were caught during the arrival and nesting period. The birds that returned to the nesting area included both males (n = 4) and females (n = 2). In the middle reaches of the Khadytayakhi, out of 12 adult Accentoris marked during nesting time, 5 were encountered the next year (Ryabitsev 1993).

Young Siberian Accentors do not return directly to the area of ​​birth, but return to the area of ​​post-nesting migrations. The next year after tagging, 3 birds out of 136 were caught in the Sobi Valley, ringed, based on the average date of hatching and the state of molting, at the age of 50-65 days, in late August - early September. Like a number of other passerines (Sokolov 1991), the Siberian Accentor is likely to form a connection with the territory of future nesting before leaving for winter.

Males arrive with developed gonads. The sizes of their testes are larger than those of similar in size pipits and wagtails; cloacal protrusions are sharply expressed, which makes it easy to distinguish males from females. Males arriving in the Lower Ob region do not need additional stimulation on a polar day (Ryzhanovsky 2008). This has been proven by experiments with keeping males from the first wave of arrival with a short-day (14C: 10T) and natural

(24C: 0T) photoperiods. All 8 Siberian Accentors of the short day group started molting simultaneously with 6 control birds (kept at natural days). At the same time, in species that penetrate the tundra zone, and even more so in subarkts, upon arrival, some of the birds, or even all of them, need photostimulation.

Almost all the nests of Siberian Accentor found in our area, over 20, were located on spruces, more often young ones, at a height of 0.48 m, usually near the trunk, rarely 5-10 cm from it. One nest was found on a spruce leg 1.2 m from the trunk. V.V. Morozov (1987) found 2 nests on juniper bushes. The basis of the nest, sometimes reaching 30 cm in diameter, is made up of thin twigs of larch, spruce, honeysuckle. The socket itself has a diameter of 100-130 mm and a height of 65-110 mm. It is built mainly from green mosses with the addition of blades of grass, willow fluff, bird fluff, wool. The tray is lined with the same material with the addition of last year's larch needles and moss sporangiophores and often has a reddish tint.

The usual breeding dates for the Siberian Accentor are the second half of June - July. In 1978, on Khadytayakh, the first egg was laid on June 24, 24 and 25, in 1979 - on June 20 and 21. In 1980, a finished empty nest, next to which a couple was worried, was discovered on June 12. In 1981, a nest with hatched eggs was found on June 25 (Danilov et al. 1984). In the Sobi Valley, a full clutch was found on June 30, 1977; nests with one-week-old chicks were found on July 30 and August 8. At the Oktyabrskiy station, 2 full non-incubated clutches were found on June 15, 1988, and June 1 - 19, 1989. Late nests from the Sobi valley were probably repeated, i.e. Accentuates are able to re-nest when the first clutch is lost. In a complete clutch there are 47 eggs, on average 5.6 ± 0.3 (n = 15).

Apparently, only the female incubates and, judging by the length of the incubation period, very densely. A nest found with a full clutch incubated for 10 days; in 2 nests found with incomplete clutches, the chicks hatched within 24 hours also 10 days after the last egg was laid. Dense incubation, judging by the amicability of hatching of chicks, begins with the penultimate or last egg. Chicks stayed in 2 nests for 10 and 11 days.

In the post-nesting time, young Siberian Accentors are few in number in the Ob floodplain: over 5 seasons, 25 individuals were caught, half of them in late July - early August, half in September. All of them were on the site for a shorter time than necessary for recapture. In the Sobi Valley, where Accentors are more common for nesting, juveniles were regularly caught in the second half of summer. In 1977, the first young bird was caught on July 25, the last on September 16. A total of 85 individuals were ringed. IN

In the first half of August, 1-3 individuals were caught in 1-2 days, in the second half of August there were more birds, up to 4 birds were caught daily. A significant increase in the number of birds in the nets occurred in the period from August 30 to September 10: 40 individuals (47.5%) were caught in 12 days. Out of 8 birds ringed in the third decade of July, 2 were recaptured (25%), out of 12 Accentoris tagged in the first decade of August, 2 individuals were also recaptured (16.7%), out of 11 birds ringed in mid-August, 5 were recaptured (45.4%). They stayed in the area from 1 to 16 days, on average 7 ± 0.4 days. Accentuates tagged in July (n = 4) stayed at the site for the same time as those tagged in August. The high proportion of recaptured birds in the second decade of August indicates that territorial mobility is minimal during this period. This is also confirmed by the duration of the presence of birds on the site. Birds ringed later, in the third decade of August and September, were not recaptured. Judging by these data, the departure of juveniles begins in the third decade of August, reaches the highest intensity in the first five days of September and ends in the third five days of September. In the Ob valley, clearly migrating young Accentor (ending molt or in a new feather, beginning to fatten) were caught from 8 to 15 September.

Adults were very rarely caught during the nesting period. So, only 2 birds were caught in the Sobi valley in July. Adult Accentors began to appear in nets in the second or third decades of August (8 birds were caught) and in early September (3). The last Accentor was caught on September 13th. The end of August and the first ten days of September are the main period of departure of adult Siberian Accentors from the Lower Ob region.

In the annual cycle of the Siberian Accentor, there is one molt in the nesting area: postjuvenile in juveniles and postnuptial in adults. In the course of partial postjuvenile molting, in almost all examined birds (n = 60) in our area, the middle upper coverts of the secondary flight feathers were replaced, all or only the distal small upper coverts of the secondary flight feathers, in most birds molting of the upper and lower coverts of the propatagial fold, lower coverts of the tertiary flight feathers, middle lower coverts of secondary flight feathers; in some, large lower coverts of primary flight feathers molted (see table). The molting process can be divided into 7 stages. A change of plumage begins in the center of the thoracic region of the abdominal pterilia (1st stage), at the 2nd stage, the dorsal, humeral, and femoral pterilia are included in the molt. A marker of the 3rd stage can be considered the appearance of tubules of small upper coverts of secondary flight feathers, tail coverts, intensive growth of upper and lower coverts of the brush. At the 4th stage, the middle upper coverts of the secondary flight feathers and all other

Alpine Accentor (Prunella collaris)

Appearance: Larger than other Accentors. The general color is brownish-gray, the wings and tail are brownish-black, the sides of the tail are white spots, the throat is whitish with black streaks, the sides are rusty-red or rusty-brown. In juveniles, the throat and sides are brown-gray.
The size: Larger than a sparrow.

Features: It differs from the Himalayan Accentor in larger size and reddish sides.

Habits: It keeps alone, in pairs and flocks on the ground and on stones.
Nature of stay: A resident and nomadic bird.

Breeding area: Alpine meadows, rocks, glacier moraines and talus.
Location of the socket and its description: In a crack in a rock or under a stone.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Bluish.

Himalayan Accentor (Prunella himalayana)

Appearance: The upper body is brown-gray with longitudinal dark-brown streaks, the tail and wings are black-brown, at the end of the tail are white spots, the throat is white, in its upper part with brown-black spots, the bottom is whitish with large frequent rusty-brown streaks, almost merging on the chest.
The size: From a sparrow.

Features: It differs from the Alpine Accentor in smaller size, variegated rather than reddish sides and a bright white spot on the throat.

Habits: It keeps alone, in pairs and flocks on the ground and on stones.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Alpine meadows, rocks, talus and glacier moraines.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Blue.

Pale Accentor (Prunella fulvescens)

Appearance: The top of the neck, back and upper tail are brownish-gray, on the back there are longitudinal brown streaks, the wings and tail are brown, the top and sides of the head are brown-black, the throat and eyebrow are whitish, the bottom of the body is buffy-whitish.
The size: From a sparrow.

Features: It differs from the Black-throated Accentor in its light throat, and from the Siberian Accentor - in its pale color.

Habits: It keeps in pairs during nesting time, otherwise - in flocks on the ground, stones and on bushes.
Nature of stay: Wandering bird.

Breeding area: Thickets of mountain bushes on dry rocky slopes.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground.
Egg laying time: May - July
Eggs color and size: Blue.

Black-throated Accentor (Prunella atrogularis)

Appearance: The upper body, wings and tail are brownish-gray, on the back there are longitudinal brown streaks, the throat, top and sides of the head are brownish-black, above the eye there is an ocher-white eyebrow, the underside of the body is buffy, whitish on the abdomen, brown streaks on the sides.
The size: From a sparrow.

Features: It differs from Pale Accentor and Siberian Accentor by its black throat.

Habits: It keeps hidden on the ground or in the lower part of bushes. It is kept alone, in pairs or in small flocks.
Nature of stay: Migratory in the north and nomadic in the south.

Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed forests with shrubs and thickets of mountain shrubs.
Location of the socket and its description: On a bush or tree.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Blue.

Japanese Accentor (Prunella rubida)

Appearance: Very similar to the forest accent, but darker and reddish, and the lower body is brownish-gray.
The size: From a sparrow.

Features: It differs from the forest accentor in a lighter color. These species do not occur together.

Habits: It keeps secretly in bushes on the ground or in the lower tier of the forest.
Nature of stay: Wandering bird.

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