Arakura are a genus of birds from the family of striped ant-traps.
The genus was established by the French ornithologist Louis Pierre Viejo in 1818. The type species is the White-bearded arakura Pithys albifrons.
The author of the taxa description did not explain the origin of the generic name, possibly derived from the Guarani language used by Azara in 1802-1805, or the combination of Pipra's name with the Latin thlypis meaning "bird song".
2. Biological description
Body length - 12-14 cm, weight - 18-31.5 g. Occurs in the undergrowth of low-lying rain forests. The white-faced arakura, a very rare species, was re-discovered in 2001.
Species of this genus are specialized birds accompanying nomadic ants, which depend on schools of nomadic ants, frightening insects and other arthropods from the leaf litter.
3. Taxonomy and taxonomy
The genus contains two species:
- White-bearded arakura Pithys albifrons Linnaeus, 1766
- Pithys albifrons peruvianus Taczanowski, 1884
- Pithys albifrons Linnaeus, 1766
- White-faced arakura Pithys castaneus Berlioz, 1938
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General information about Zhau
- Full name: "Jau" National Park (Portuguese. Parque Nacional do Jau).
- Region: State of Amazonas, Brazil.
- IUCN category: Jau - II (national park).
- Established: September 24, 1980
- Area: 23778.9 km2.
- Relief: low-lying plain, selva of the Amazon River.
- Climate: humid, equatorial.
- Official site: ic. jau
- Purpose of creation: preservation of virgin rainforest equatorial forests of a unique ecoregion - selva of the Amazon River basin.
- Visit - paid only
Information for visitors to Jau Park
Jau National Park is one of the largest national parks in Brazil and the third largest conservation area in the world with pristine equatorial rain forests.
The park is located in the state of Amazonia on the territory of the municipalities of Barcelos and Novo Airo and occupies 1.41% of the total area of the state.
The national park is open from 07:00 to 20:00. Admission is paid, the price includes the cost of an entrance ticket and a special tariff for a watercraft, which depends on the displacement of the vessel. The most favorable period for visiting is from July to the whole of September.
The rainy season lasts from December to April. In order to gain access to the protected area, visitors will have to apply to the headquarters of the park administration, which is located in the city of Manaus, for a special permit.
200 km northwest of the park is Manaus, the closest town from which you can get to Jau. A boat is a common means of visiting the park. The journey on it from Manaus to the park entrance can take from 6 to 18 hours, or about 8 hours by speedboat. From Novo Airo, the park can only be reached by water, for this you will have to swim 100 km downstream of the Jau River. In these cities, visitors to the park can rent inexpensive and comfortable housing.
At the entrance to the "Zhau" there is a visitor center, a boat dock for security boats and premises for employees and visitors. At the mouths of the Zhau and Unini rivers, the most visited place for fishing, ranger stations have been built.
In addition to fishing, employees of the conservation area and travel agencies based in the visitor center can offer relaxation on the beaches of the Rio Negro River, walking and water excursions in the Jau area, kayaking or canoeing, an unprecedented opportunity to observe and photograph wildlife. at close range, for example from a boat or while walking along special ecological trails.
Exploring the natural beauty of the park can be combined with a visit to the archaeological and cultural values of Latin America and the Caribbean, such as the Indian settlement, the ruins of old Iroh, which was the center of the Portuguese colonization of this region.
National park history
The impenetrable rainforests of the Amazonian lowland, almost from the moment the Europeans discovered South America, were considered the richest area in flora and fauna with an incredible number of endemics and relics per square kilometer. However, after the creation of the Trans-Amazonian highway, which "ripped" from west to east the entire lowland in the 1970s, logging companies appeared in these remote places, thousands of refugees from northeastern Brazil began to engage in slash-and-burn agriculture. Instead of forests, small agricultural plots, and entire plantations or ranches began to appear. The world environmental community, together with Brazilian scientists, sounded the alarm and appealed to the government of the country. The first proposals for the creation of protected areas in these places were made in 1977, but only 1980 was the year of the birth of the Zhau National Park. Its management plan was developed in 1997-2002.
In 2000, the park entered the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites, and in 2003, with three more protected areas, it became a part of the Central Amazonian nature reserve.
Walk in Jau Park
Park "Jau" occupies the territory of the basin of the river of the same name and between two large tributaries of the Amazon: (Rio Negro and Solimoes), stretches 340 km to the west from the confluence of the rivers Jau and Rio Negro. The park is surrounded by water from almost all sides. So, its northern border is formed by the left bank of the Igrap, Marum, Paunini and Unini rivers. East - the left bank of the Rio Negro with the mouth of the Jau River. The southern border is the right banks of the Jau and Karabinani rivers, and the south-western border is the Amazonka river, which is called Solimoes on this site before the confluence with the Rio Negro.
The protected area is one of the best examples of the ecosystem of the so-called Black River (Rios Negros), which flows over a sandy or crystalline bed, and decaying organic matter imparts its characteristic color to its transparent dark waters. A large area is occupied by untouched equatorial rain forests.
In addition to the black ones (and there are also white rivers in the park - Rios Brancos). They slowly carry a large amount of yellowish suspended particles, barely crashing into the valley and often zigzagging.
In "Zhau" you can witness the so-called falling lands, when flood waters erode the clay banks of the mountains with a powerful stream and crash them into the water with a noise.
The national park includes several natural ecosystems of the Amazon regions.
- Terra-firm, or - ete - equatorial rain forests located on relatively high, and therefore never flooded interfluves.
- Varzea-altos is a high floodplain, periodically flooded only by major floods, and then for a short period.
- Kaa-Igapo is a low floodplain with swampy poor alluvial soils, flooded for many months.
Each of these different ecosystems has a distinct conglomerate of flora and fauna.
The "Jau" area is unique in the presence of several refugia of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods at the confluence of the Jau River into the Rio Negro River.
More than 200 Indian families have lived in "Jau" since ancient times; there are no settlements outside the park in this region. The Indians preserve their traditional way of life, are mainly engaged in hunting, fishing and partly farming.
Natural wonders of Jau and interesting facts
Victoria Amazon, or Victoria Regia (Victoria amazonica (Victoria regia)), named after the Queen of England - Victoria - the largest water lily in the world. It grows in the huge Amazon basin and in Bolivia.
The leaves of this water lily have a diameter of about 2 m, and thanks to the hollow ribs at the bottom, they can withstand a weight of 30 to 50 kg. In a normal habitat, Victoria Regia can live up to 5 years.
The name of the park comes from the name of the Jau River, one of the middle small tributaries of the main river Rio Negru, and it, in turn, got its name from the fish Jau (Zungaro Jahu), which lives in these waters.
7000 kilometers - Length of the Amazon
2,300 kilometers - Length of the Rio Negro
60 kilometers - Length of Jau
- The equatorial rain forest of the western Amazon is unique and beautiful.
- Among the inimitable pattern of channels, lakes, oxbows, swamps, low-lying islands and river banks, it is difficult to determine the main channel of the Amazon.
- The cougar has no natural enemies, and she kills more animals she encounters than she can eat. Local tribes take advantage of this habit, picking up eaten or untouched carcasses for the predator.
- The nine-belted armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) lives in burrows in South, Central and Southern North America, feeds on insects, small amphibians and reptiles, fruits and seeds of plants.
- The literal translation of the Latin name of the species, the Amazonian manatee, means "devoid of nails." The largest member of this species was 2.8m long and weighed about 500kg.
- Through the transparent, rusty-dark water of the black rivers of the Amazonian lowland, you can see the sandy bottom and schools of tropical freshwater fish.
- The squirrel saimiri (Saimiri sciureus) is a small chain-tailed monkey with a diurnal arboreal lifestyle. The length of her body and tail can be almost the same - about 40 cm.
- The ancient Aztecs considered cocoa a sacred gift from the god Quetzalcoatl; seeds (beans) were used instead of money and to prepare a drink with intoxicating and intoxicating properties.
The flora of the Jau Park is unusually diverse.
The Amazonian rainforest equatorial forest (gilea, or selva) is a very complex multi-level ecosystem in which there are up to five tiers, of which three are arboreal plant forms. It occupies 70% of the park's surface and represents the wooded surface of such Amazonian landscapes as terra firma and varzea altos. On average, there are about 200 plant species per hectare of such a forest.
In the interfluve, there are representatives of ceiba (Ceiba), zedrela (Cedrela) with very valuable wood, fernambuca tree (Caesalpinia echinata), cocoa (Theobroma cacao).
It is here that you can find swirling mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) with red wood, Brazilian hevea (Hevea brasiliensis), the main rubber plant, useful brosimum, or milk tree (Brosimum utile), with sweet juice, high bertholletia (Bertholletia excelsa), its fruits , or American, nuts - rich in protein and oil.The second tier is made up of a variety of palms, such as elephant palms (Jubeaea spectabilis) or Mauritius palms (Mauritia miriti and Mauritia carana).
In the high and dense ground cover, the Ravenala guyanensis, banana (Musaceae), trunkless cycads (Cycas) and selaginella (Selaginella), ferns (Polypodiophyta), brightly flowering bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) and amaryllids (Amaryllidaceae) are distinguished.
There are a lot of ficuses (Ficus), representatives of the leguminous family (Leguminosae), various epiphytes in the park. Lianas (Liane) hang from the trees in multi-level garlands, and orchids (Orchidaceae) bloom on the trunks with multi-colored stars.
Palm trees (Palmae), chrysobalanaceae (Chrysobalanaceae) dominate at the mouth of the Jau River, and black copal (Protium grandifolium) grows along the river.
Almost 30% of the national park is occupied by the territory of kaa-Igapo with low trees with thin trunks and bromeliads and orchid epiphytes, on sandy and nutrient-poor soils, they grow with a density of 108 plant species per hectare.
The "Jau" is home to 120 species of mammals, including 20 species of rodents and marsupials, 470 species of birds (this is approximately 2/3 of all birds of the western and central Amazon), 15 species of reptiles and 320 species of fish (this is 2/3 of the entire ichthyofauna of the Rio Negru ).
Some of the mammals living within the borders of the national park are rare and endangered species. Among them are the light-fronted koata (Ateles belzebuth), the woolly Humboldt monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha), the black-headed uakari (Cacajao melanocephalus), the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the giant armadillo (Priotontes maximus) ), Brazilian otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), jaguar (Panthera onca), cougar (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), Amazonian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis).
During a voyage through the park, tourists will be able to see such birds as the South American harpy (Harpia harpiya), the white-bearded arakura (Pithys albifrons), and the black-faced small ant (Myrmoborus myotherinus). 38 wetland bird species nest near the river, such as the black-throated brook ant (Hypocnemoides melanopogon), the festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) and the Venezuelan (Amazona amazonica). Small but very colorful hummingbirds (Trochilidae) always hover around orchids.
The rivers are inhabited by 10 species of freshwater turtles, the most common are two species of shield-leg turtles: tartaruga or arrau (Podocnemis expansa), and traxa, or terekai (Podocnemis unifilis). Indian tribes from ancient times, received oil from their testicles.
But the toothed turtle (Geochelone denticulata), the Amazonian river turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata) and the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) are threatened with extinction.
In the Jau River, there are also crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus), smooth-faced, or musky, caiman (Palaeosuchus palpebrosus), Schneider's dwarf caiman, or smooth-breasted caiman (Palaeosuchus trigonatus) - endemics of the national park.
The park is unusually rich in amphibians, but representatives of lizards and snakes are especially diverse. In "Jau" their largest venomous representative lives - the South American bushmaster, or surukuku (Lachesis muta), which grows up to 4m in length, and the largest non-venomous snake in the world - anaconda (Eunectes murinus), its length can reach more than 10m.
(Coleoptera) and Lepidoptera (Ledidoptera), 8 species of shrimp (Natantia).
The ichthyofauna of the Amazonian lowland river basin is made up of such predatory and voracious fish as piranha (Serrasalminae), as well as lepidosiren, American scaly (Lepidosiren paradoxa), one of six species of lungfish existing on Earth. Here live brown pacu (Colossoma macropomum), which feeds on the fruits and seeds of rubber trees, and silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), which grows up to 120 cm in length. She can jump high out of the water to grab a beetle from a branch.
The invertebrates of the Amazonian lowland are 87 insect families (Insecta), 21 families of beetles.
Now you yourself were able to see how rich and diverse the world of the Brazilian Park Jau is.