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Columba jouyi (Stejneger, 1887)
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The Ryukyu Wood Pigeon (Columba jouyi), otherwise known as the Silver-banded or Silver-crescented Pigeon is an extinct species of bird in the Columba genus in the Columbidae family. This Wood Pigeon was endemic to the Laurel forest habitat. Source: Wikipedia
Taxonomic Serial Number:
- Columba jouyi: Formerly Okinawa and Daito Is. Extinct, last seen 1936
Doves, or real doves (Columba) - birds from the order are pigeon-like, pigeon families. The wild pigeon was domesticated about 5,000, and possibly 10,000 years ago.
Types of pigeons
The genus of pigeons includes 35 species, 2 of which are extinct:
- Columba albinucha - white-capped pigeon
- Columba albitorques- Ethiopian pigeon
- Columba argentina - silver pigeon
- Columba arquatrix - olive pigeon
- Columba bollii - Canary pigeon
- Columba delegorguei - wine-red pigeon
- Columba elphinstonii — Nilgirian pigeon
- Columba eversmanni- brown pigeon
- Columba guinea — speckled pigeon
- Columba hodgsonii— Himalayan pigeon
- Columba iriditorques - speckled (guinea) pigeon
- Columba janthina-black dove
- Columba jouyi - silver-striped pigeon (extinct)
- Columba junoniae - bay pigeon
- Columba larvata (Aplopelia larvata) - lemon turtle dove
- Columba leucomela-black and white dove
- Columba leuconota - white-breasted pigeon
- Columba livia - rock dove
- Columba malherbii — San Tomey pigeon
- Columba oenas - clintuch
- Columba oliviae- Somali pigeon
- Columba pallidiceps - yellow-footed pigeon
- Columba palumboides— Andaman pigeon
- Columba palumbus - wood pigeon, or vituten
- Columba pollenii — Comorian pigeon
- Columba pulchricollis - ash pigeon
- Columba punicea — purple pigeon
- Columba rupestris- rock pigeon
- Columba sjostedti
- Columba thomensis - maroon pigeon
- Columba torringtonii - Ceylon pigeon
- Columba trocaz - Madeira pigeon
- Columba unicincta - Congolese pigeon
- Columba versicolor - Bonin pigeon (extinct)
- Columba vitiensis - white-chinned pigeon
In total, about 800 breeds of domestic pigeons were bred, 200 of which were bred in Russia.
What do pigeons eat?
Pigeons feed on seeds, fruits of fruit trees, berries. Birds living in cities can consume food waste (wheat, corn, oats, barley). Sometimes pigeons eat insects. Basically, birds prefer to settle near a person's dwelling, so it is easier for them to find food for themselves. In choosing a food source, pigeons are quite unpretentious, since the pigeon has very few taste receptors in the mouth: 37 taste buds compared to 10,000 taste buds that humans have.
When a pigeon drinks, it draws water into itself as through a straw, while other birds mainly grab a few drops with their beak, and then throw their heads back so that the water gets into the throat.
Where do pigeons live?
Pigeons live everywhere, with the exception of Antarctica and the polar regions. Despite the fact that the number of roaming pigeons reached 5 billion, they became extinct due to deforestation in North America.
A dodo dove or dodo is a bird that has become extinct due to human efforts. Dodo lived in Mauritius, Mascarene Islands and Rodriguez. He had no natural enemies, did not fly, swam and ran poorly. In height, he reached a meter, built nests on the ground and laid one egg. With the advent of the Europeans, the dodo pigeon was destroyed by them. Due to the credulity of the dodo pigeon, hunting for it was not difficult, and the brought dogs, cats and pigs devoured the eggs of the pigeons.
Pigeons are monogamous and create a family for the rest of their lives. When a male pigeon cares for a female, it spreads its tail and takes an upright stance, then bends down, swells and spins around the female. During this dance, the male coos loudly. Lovers clean each other's feathers and touch each other with their beaks, creating a semblance of a kiss.
When a pair mates, the male climbs onto the female's back and balances on her thanks to the wings. After that, he flies, flapping his wings noisily. The mating season for pigeons can be at any time of the year, as it depends on the place of residence of the individuals. A pair of pigeons build a nest in a secluded place where it is difficult to find it. The male obtains materials for the dwelling, and the dove lays down thin twigs, twigs and blades of grass. A female can make up to 8 clutches per year, which consist of 1 or more eggs.
Most of the time, the female incubates the eggs, but the male pigeon also participates in hatching. After 16-19 days, chicks of pigeons appear, blind and with a yellow down. They are not born at the same time, since the laying of eggs could take place with a two-day break. In the early days, parents feed their offspring by belching from the goiter. Then seeds are added to the diet. When a little over a month has passed, young pigeons begin to fly and become like adults.
Interesting about pigeons
- Pigeons are bred for decorative or sports purposes, as well as for meat: there are special breeds such as Strasser, Modena, King and others, which are eaten in some countries. The meat of young pigeons is most highly valued,
- One pair of pigeons incubates from 14 to 16 chicks per year. A pigeon chick of these breeds weighs about 700 grams. Thus, one pair of pigeons gives from 8 to 10 kilograms of high quality meat.
The dove is a hardy and very strong bird. For these qualities they were highly valued in the days of pigeon mail. Pigeons can reach speeds of up to 140 kilometers per hour and can fly a distance of up to 3,000 kilometers.
Thanks to the speed of these birds, the pigeon sport was created - this is a competition of carrier pigeons. Olympiads and contests for these birds are organized every two years.
Doves have existed on Earth long before the appearance of mankind. Scientists believe that they originated 35 million years ago during the Oligocene era. Now pigeons are widespread on the planet. According to official data, the pigeon family now has 285 species. Unofficial statistics call the figure more than three hundred.
The variety of species and breeds of pigeons is so great that even professional pigeon breeders find it difficult to answer how many there really are. Wild pigeons are especially variegated in plumage. Among them are the dove, the bronze-winged dove, the lemon dove, the emerald dove, the blue dove, the green dove and many others. Here the name of the species is determined by the color of the bird, in which most of its plumage is painted. Some species of wild pigeons were introduced to Europe from East India and other parts of the world by English and Spanish navigators.
Are there pink pigeons? The pink pigeon is an endemic genus of the pigeon family. The habitat of these birds is evergreen forests on the small islands of Mauritius and Egret in the Indian Ocean. In Mauritius, they inhabit a corner in the south of the island, and on Egrethe they live in mountain forests in the eastern part of the island. Today this species is under the threat of extinction. The population size is no more than four hundred individuals.
But still, all you see in the photos above and below are pigeons painted with food dyes or potassium permanganate.
This is done for weddings, movies, or just for public entertainment.
These are still painted pigeons, I will warn you when there are real ones in the photo.
The pigeon you see in the picture was photographed in London by a tourist from France and more than half of the Internet, I'm sure that this is indeed Madagascar pink pigeon. Do not believe it!
The real pink pigeon owes its name to the dull pink color of the feathers growing on the head, neck, chest, upper back and belly of the bird. At the same time, the pigeon has brown wings and a wide red-brown tail in places with a reddish tint.
Pink pigeons live in small flocks of twenty to twenty-five individuals. Once a year, the birds give birth. Usually, the offspring are two chicks, which become fully mature by the age of one year. The lifespan of pink pigeons is up to twenty years. Moreover, females live less than males.
Pink pigeons, like most of the species, are excellent flyers. Their flight is distinguished by speed and great maneuverability, however, they do not carry out long-distance flights, since they do not need this: all the food that pink pigeons eat grows in their habitat. Birds eat fruits and buds of local trees, leaves and flowers of plants, young shoots.
Since 1970, pink pigeons have been kept in zoos. Despite the fact that the pink pigeon is a wild bird, unaccustomed to life in captivity, zoos have managed to create the proper conditions for the birds and get them to produce offspring.
In addition to the pink pigeon, there are other birds from the pigeon family that have pink in their plumage. For example, the muscat pigeon that lives in the rainforests of India and Burma has a grayish-pink tint to the feathers of the head, neck and lower body. And the pink-necked pigeon, whose homeland is Southeast Asia, is distinguished by the wine-pink color of the front of the neck. The sides of the neck and chest of the bird are matte pink.
The pink pigeon reaches a length of 36 to 38 cm and weighs from 320 to 350 g. Its neck is of medium length, the head is small and round, the wings are from dark gray to dark brown, the primary flight feathers are somewhat darker, the fan-shaped tail is red-brown, the rest of the plumage is pale pink. The beak of this bird is strong and slightly thickened at the end with a light red base and a white to pale pink top. The pink pigeon has light red legs with one short and three long toes with strong claws. The pink pigeon is characterized by a red periobital ring and dark yellow eyes.
The pink pigeon lives only in the south of Mauritius and on the east coast of the island Île aux Aigrettes). It feeds on leaves, fruits, flowers, seeds and buds of both local and imported plants. Both birds build a nest of branches in the crown of a tree. The female usually lays 2 eggs.
The pink pigeon is a rare species listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Most of all, it is threatened by the loss of habitat due to deforestation and death due to animal species introduced by people (black rat, common mongoose, cat and Japanese macaque.) In addition, pigeons suffer greatly from severe storms. So in 1960, 1975 and 1979, about half of all pink pigeons died due to cyclones.
Already in 1830, the population size was assessed as critical. In 1991, the number of birds dropped to 10 individuals. In 1970, pink pigeons were first kept in captivity in Mauritius and at the Gerald Darell Zoo in Jersey. Other breeding groups in zoos were created, among which it is worth noting - this is, first of all, Walsrode in Germany. Today approximately 150 birds live in zoos. Birds have already begun to be released back into nature and in 2005 there were already 360-395 individuals (in 5 populations), of which 240-260 are adult birds.
The pink pigeon is a very rare and extremely beautiful bird. To prolong their existence on Earth, the Environmental Protection Fund is actively implementing programs for the restoration and reproduction of these birds. It is possible that if they are successful, pink pigeons will spread throughout the world and be able to delight more people with their beauty.
Pigeons: appearance and habitat
24.11.2016, Posted in & nbsp
There is no such person who does not recognize the dove. Someone considers pigeons to be ordinary city dwellers and constantly feeds them on playgrounds and in parks, but there are people who invest their whole lives in these birds. These birds were tamed by man in ancient times and roamed with him all over the world. The dove is rightfully considered a symbol of the purity of the soul, they are very devoted in their friendship and love.
What do pigeons look like?
There are about 300 breeds of domesticated pigeons. They are very similar to each other both in appearance and in lifestyle.
The rock dove has become a well-known ancestor of many modern breeds of pigeons, with the exception of decorative domestic representatives, which have an absolutely unusual look and do not look at all like their ordinary wild counterparts. The sizes and plumages of pigeons are very diverse, although many of them are traditionally ash gray with a green or purple tint. Pure white pigeons are very beautiful. They are often used for holiday shows and photo shoots, especially weddings. For example, you cannot launch a budgerigar into the sky.
There are more than twenty colors and shades of pigeon plumage, and this number is constantly increasing. The intense dark metallic color immediately distinguishes males from females, which are always lighter and brighter. Young animals are distinguished by a paler shade, and already adult birds can boast of bright plumage.
In size, large individuals are comparable to a chicken, and small ones are only slightly larger than a sparrow. The largest weight that occurs in a pigeon is about four hundred grams. In addition, the pigeon has strong and large wings with a wide span.
Where do pigeons live?
The dove is a very famous bird and is widespread in Europe, Africa and Asia. A lot of wild pigeons live in almost the entire territory of Eurasia, not excluding the high mountain regions.
Lonely pigeons are practically not to be found, they prefer to live in flocks, so it is easier for them to find food for themselves and fight off numerous enemies. Despite the fact that the pigeon is a kind and peaceful bird, many animals strive to eat them, therefore pigeons live together. In addition to death from the paws of animals, they often die from various infections and sudden cold weather. Also, like cockatiels, they are curious and thereby harm themselves.
Most birds prefer to be sedentary and live in one place. The exception is birds living in the mountains. With the onset of cold weather, they move to warmer places. But the number of migratory populations is decreasing, there are very few of them left.
A significant number of domesticated birds settle in urban or rural areas, closer to people. Urban individuals settle mainly under the roofs of multi-storey buildings.
And birds, preferring a semi-wild life, live in coastal rocks and mountain gorges, steep banks of rivers and reservoirs, where there are very few trees, in overgrown bushes and even in an agricultural field.
Features of bird behavior
Pigeons are birds with well-developed hearing and vision, they are able to see not only all the colors of the rainbow, but also ultraviolet rays. Their excellent hearing picks up sounds of very low frequency, so they can hear very distant noises or an approaching thunderstorm.
These birds have an amazing ability to navigate in space and find their way home regardless of distance. In one day, they are able to overcome about one thousand kilometers at an altitude of three thousand meters above the ground. Because of this feature, in ancient times, pigeons were used as postmen, they carried letters over long distances and always returned home.
At the same time, they, like all birds, are very shy and cautious. But this fearfulness is inherent mainly in wild pigeons, and city birds, well fed by people, lose all caution and can even peck food from human hands.
Many pigeons, especially wild ones, are capable of reaching speeds of up to one hundred and eighty kilometers per hour during flight. The fastest are the pigeons that live in the mountains.And the city dwellers are already lazy and fly very rarely, they mostly roam the earth. But if they managed to scare them away, then they will very beautifully circle in the air, watching everyone from above.
These birds move very interestingly on the ground, they walk at a step, while shaking their head back and forth. You can meet a large number of birds walking along the roads and in the park, and if they see a person with seeds or other food, they will flock from all around, waiting for an offering.
Pigeons feed mainly on plant foods: berries and fruits, various grains, seeds and nuts. The pigeon's beak is very hard and pointed, ideal for pecking.
Insects and others very rarely attract these birds. They are very voracious and are constantly in search of food. Pigeons are very easy to tame with food. It is worth feeding them once in a certain place and at a certain time, so they will constantly return there and wait for hours.
Also, these birds are very fond of drinking water, softening solid food with it. It is very interesting to watch the pigeons when they drink. They suck in liquid, as if from a straw, completely immersing their beak in water. This makes them very different from other birds.
The crowned pigeon (Goura) belongs to the family of pigeons, which includes 3 species. Externally, the species of pigeons are similar, differ only in areas. This species was described in 1819 by the English entomologist James Francis Stevens.
Description of the crowned pigeon
The crowned pigeon is one of the most beautiful and vibrant birds in the world, which is significantly different from its closest relative, the common rock dove.
First of all, the crowned pigeon attracts attention with an unusual tuft, which consists of feathers with tassels at the end, very similar to an openwork fan. The color is bright, depending on the type of pigeon: it can be purple, chestnut, blue or light blue. The tail consists of 15-18 long tail feathers, wide, rather long, rounded at the end. The body of a crowned pigeon is in the shape of a trapezoid, slightly streamlined, covered with short feathers. The neck is thin, graceful, the head is spherical, small. The eyes are red, the pupils are bronze. The wings of a pigeon are massive, strong, covered with feathers. Their color is slightly darker than on the body. The wingspan is about 40 cm. In flight, the noise of powerful wings is heard. The feet are scaly, with short toes and claws. The beak of a pigeon is pyramidal in shape, has a blunt tip, rather strong.
Features of the crowned pigeon:
- the appearance of the male and female does not have any special differences,
- differs from its relative the rock dove in its large size (resembles a turkey),
- pigeon life expectancy is about 20 years (in captivity with proper care up to 15 years),
- non-migratory bird,
- in its natural habitat, the pigeon flies little and it is given to him quite hard,
- creates one pair for life.
The pigeon is named after Queen Victoria for its royal crest. The first birds of the crowned pigeon appeared in Europe in early 1900 and were settled in the Rotterdam Zoo.
The homeland of the crowned pigeon is considered to be New Guinea and the islands closest to it - Biak, Yapen, Vaygeo, Seram, Salavati. The population in these places is about 10 thousand individuals. Some species live in Australia, which is why it is sometimes called the Australian pigeon.
Crowned pigeons live in small groups strictly on a certain territory, the boundaries of which are not violated. They inhabit both swampy areas, river floodplains, and dry places. Pigeons can often be found near farms where there is no shortage of food.
In nature, there are 3 types of crowned pigeons:
The blue-crested crowned pigeon has a bright feature that distinguishes it from the other two species - a blue crest, there are no triangular tassels at the tips of the feathers. In addition, it is the largest species. Its weight reaches 3 kg, its height is about 80 cm. It inhabits only the southern part of New Guinea.
The fan-bearer is considered the brightest representative of the crowned pigeon. He attracts attention with his tuft, which resembles a fan. The color is brown-red. The weight of the pigeon is about 2.5 kg, its height is up to 75 cm. Of all the species, it is the rarest, since it is subject to extermination by poachers. Inhabits the northern outskirts of New Guinea.
The chestnut-breasted crowned pigeon is the smallest: its weight is up to 2 kg, its height is about 70 cm. The color of the breast is brown (chestnut). The crest is blue, without triangular tassels. Lives in the central part of New Guinea.
The crowned pigeon most often moves along the ground in search of food, trying not to rise high. It moves along the branches of trees with the help of its paws. Often sits swinging on a vine. These pigeons fly only when it is necessary to move to another habitat. When a danger arises, pigeons fly to the lower branches of nearby trees, staying there for a long time, clicking their tail, transmitting danger signals to their fellows.
In stock, crowned pigeons have many different sounds, each of which has its own, special meaning: a sound to lure a female, a guttural sound to indicate the boundaries of its territory, a male's battle cry, an alarm signal.
Although this bird has no enemies in nature, due to its gullible nature, it often becomes a victim of predators or poachers. Pigeons are not shy, calm in relation to a person. They can accept treats and even allow themselves to be picked up.
Crowned pigeons are diurnal. Usually they are engaged in building a nest, searching for food. Couples try to make time for each other. Young pigeons live in groups together with older individuals, being under their supervision.
Basically, crowned pigeons prefer plant foods: fruits, seeds, berries, nuts. They can pick fruits lying under trees on the ground. At the same time, pigeons do not rake the earth cover with their paws, which is completely uncharacteristic for birds of the pigeon family.
Occasionally they can feast on snails, insects, larvae, which are found under the bark of trees.
Like all birds, crowned pigeons love fresh greens. Sometimes they raid fields with new shoots.
Having exhausted food supplies completely in one territory, a flock of crowned pigeons moves to another area, richer in food resources.
When kept in captivity (zoos, nurseries, private dovecotes), the diet of pigeons consists of grain mixtures: millet, wheat, rice, and so on. They enjoy eating sunflower seeds, peas, corn, soybeans.
They are also fed boiled chicken yolk, fresh low-fat cottage cheese, carrots. Animal protein is important for pigeons to develop properly, so sometimes they are given boiled meat.
Keeping in captivity
For keeping in captivity crowned pigeons can be purchased in specialized nurseries. This pleasure is very expensive. This bird requires both economic and labor costs.
It must be remembered that the crowned pigeon is a tropical bird. It is necessary to build her a spacious aviary and create comfortable conditions of detention. The aviary must be closed to avoid drafts, temperature changes, excessive humidity in the room. In the cold season, electric heating will be required, maintaining constant humidity.
For a pair of crowned pigeons, it is worth equipping a secluded place for a nest, hanging it as high as possible. Usually for pigeons in the room they put a high branchy snag and provide them with the building material necessary for arranging the nest. Everything in the aviary should resemble the natural habitat of birds - tropical forests.
Not all lovers of pigeons are able to keep them, but with a competent approach, if all conditions are created, birds can live and even breed in captivity.
The crowned pigeon is one of the rare species of the pigeon family in the wild, but is most commonly found in captivity. It is included in the "Red List" of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Catching for captivity, like hunting them, is strictly prohibited and punishable by law. But because of the bright plumage, poachers continue to hunt these birds. As a result, the population of crowned pigeons, despite all the laws, is rapidly declining.